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The fruit of walnut fall into the nuts group in respect of pomological classification. The fruit is consisted of green shell, hard shell and kernel on the tree. The green shell is called as kal.

The green Shell is consisted of sheath and perianth; the hard Shell is consisted of ovary walls. In fact the walnut we eat is the embryo of the walnut. The reserve nutrient is accumulated on cotyledons within the seeds which do not carry endosperm. Although the weight of the fruit with shell changes according to the genetic structure and ecological conditions of the varieties, it can vary between 2-25 g. The walnut varieties offers very different characteristics in respect of the shell thickness. There are very thin-shelled walnuts which are named as paper shelled walnuts, as well as very thick and hard shelled walnut types and varieties which we named as hard nut. The thickness of the Shell is an important characteristic in respect of kernel yield, transportation and intended use of the fruit. Roughness of the shell is an important characteristic which effects the quality of the fruit. Smooth, shapely and light-colored fruits find buyers with high prices in the market.